**BASIC ETIQUETTE FOR PASSING WAEC AND SCHOOL MATHEMATICS EXAMS**

**There are certain practices students must observe to please WAEC and school maths examiners**

**1. The student should ensure that there is consistency in equality signs when solving problems .i.e. all equality signs should be properly aligned.**

** 2.Units must be put at the end of each answer if there is an indication for such.**

** 3. Each question should be separated from others during school or external examination by at least two lines and by a line between sub-questions. Internal exams by at least two lines and by a line between sub – questions. Note that external exams may have their own rules.**

** 4. All questions should be properly numbered and all sub-answers should be underlined with a single line. And only the final answer should be underlined with a double line. If an examiner picks up a paper and it is neat, it will look inviting or pleasurable to him or her for marking.**

** 5. It is good to quote the appropriate formulae or theorem that supports the answer.**

** 6. Questions that need tables and diagrams should be properly treated. That is, the tables and diagrams should be drawn. Rulers should always be used when drawing.**

**7. Jumping steps which should be stated in an examination should be avoided. Students should not assume that the examiner knows what he or she is doing. They lose many marks by doing this.**

**8. Approximating answers before the final answer should also be avoided. Approximation either increases or reduces the final answer. Students should approximate as minimally as possible.**

**9. Students should fasten extra sheets when used before submission to avoid being lost in transit.**

** ADDITIONAL POINTS TO NOTE WHEN STUDYING FOR WAEC/NECO MATHS EXAMS**

** 10. ****Not all parts of the syllabus can be equally understood by all students. Each student has to decide which ones to**

**concentrate on.**

**11. During private studies students should pick and handle many common place objects at home and school for application of maths ideas or formulas. They should also draw many of the mathematical concepts or their implications from practice questions. **

**12. They should learn what are called “maths tricks of the trade”. For example turning multiplication or division by 25 or 125 into multiplications and division by 100 and 4 or by 1000 and 8 respectively.**

** 13.They should also engage in lots of mental maths.**

** 14. The objective paper which usually covers most parts of the scheme has a maximum score equal to about 1/3 of the available maximum marks for the subject.**

** 15. They should also note topics experts at WAEC say are usually found easier by students. These include:**

** a. Preparation of cumulative frequency tables.**

** b. Plotting points and drawing graphs.**

** c. Geometrical progression.**

** d. Logarithms, use of log tables and calculations of logarithms in base 102 .**

** e. Solving linear, simultaneous and quadratic equations.**

** f. Interpretation of pie chart questions**

** g. Using of tables to evaluate given trigonometrical expressions **

** h. Statistical charts.**

** i. Calculating lengths of solids.**

** j. Graph sketching.**

** k. Binary multiplication tables.**

** l. Variations.**

** They can use these as basis for planning strategically for the exams**

**WAEC MATHS TOPICS FOR QUICK REVISION**

**PREAMBLE**

**Please**** find below all topics WAEC expects candidates would have covered for its exams. They are hereby presented in accordance to the 7 branches of maths whose notes were earlier given.We also gave a list of the 100 most frequently asked maths questions by WAEC to compare with this list.Once a school,tutor or student can link such questions to these topics and backwards to their branches they can manage time allocations during revision periods.They will also be better placed to meander their ways through what looks like maths wilderness.Students in particular should scan through these topics,identify areas that might need further work by their tutors for strategic preparations for WAEC exams.These lists were strategically prepared by EDUPEDIA from major maths textbooks from JSS1 to SS3.**

**1.ARITHMETIC/ 2.STRUCTURE**

** NUMBERS AND NUMERATION **

**Egyptian, Roman and Hindu – Arabic Numerals, Natural Numbers, Integers, Factors, Prime Numbers, Index Notation, Even & Odd Nos, Square Nos, HCF and LCM, Numerators and Denominators, Proper and Improper Fractions, Decimal forms, Decimal Points and Decimal Places, Surds, Irrational Nos and Square Roots. Approximations, Significant Figures, Standard Forms, Percentages, Percentage Increases and Percentage Decreases, Percentage Errors, Rate, Ratio, Common Ratio, Proportion, Indices and Logarithms, Number Bases, Simple Interest, Compound Interest and Annuity, Sequences, The n ^{th} term, Arithmetic Progression, Sum of Geometric series, Sets, Universal Set, Subsets, Finite Set, Empty Set, Union of Two Sets, Intersection of Two Sets, Equal Sets, Disjoint Sets, Complement Of a Set.**

**3 ALGEBRAIC PROCESSES**

**Solution of Linear Equations and Inequalities in One Variable, Simultaneous Linear Equations in Two Variables, Word Problems on Simultaneous Equations, Change of Subject of a Formula, Direct Variations, Inverse Variation. Joint Variation, Partial Variation, Quadratic Equations, Factorization of Quadratic Expressions, Coefficient of x, Constant Term, Trial and Error Method, Differences of Two Squares, Completing the Square, The Quadratic Formula, Construction of Quadratic Equation with given roots. Word Problems involving Quadratic Equations, Graphs of Linear and Quadratic Functions or Expressions. Graphs of Linear Inequalities in one variable, Linear Inequalities in Two Variables, Monomial Denominations.**

**4.GEOMETRY & MENSURATION / 5. TRIGONOMETRY**

**Lengths and Perimeters, Circle, Arc, Radius, Sector, Length, Breadth, Centre of, 2πr Subtending An Angle, Chord of Circle, Minor Segment, Equilateral Angles, Pythagoras Theorem, Right angled Triangle, Perpendicular Distance, Parallel Chords, Opposite Sides of The Centre of a circle, Rhombus, Diagonals of Lengths of 6cm and 8cm Perimeter of the Rhombus, Perimeter of a Playing Field. Perimeter of a Compound made up of Quadrilaterals and Triangles. Perimeter of a Compound Consisting of a Semi Circle and Rectangle. Perimeter of the shaded sectors of a circle, length of a chord of a circle and radius of the length of the perpendicular drawn from the centre of a certain length. Calculate the Radius of the Circle of the Length of the Perpendicular from O to the Chord is of a certain Length. Calculating the Perimeter of a Shape having 2 semicircles and a Right – Angled Triangle. A Chord of a Circle with a Distance from the Center and the Circle with a Certain Radius and then Calculating the Perimeter of the Minor Segment of the Circle.**

**AREAS AND VOLUMES .Rectangle, Parallelogram, Triangle, Trapezium, Circle Sector, Calculating the Area of the Shaded Segment of a Circle, Calculating the Distance between Parallel Sides, Calculating the Area of the Minor Sector, Calculating the Perimeter of the Major Sector, Calculating the area of a Sector of a Circle and Radius which Subtends an Angle at the Centre. Calculating the Area of the Shaded Parts of Different Figures.**

** SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES OF SOLIDS Cuboids, Cylinder, Triangular Prism, Cone, Pyramid, Sphere, Right Solid Cone of Base Radius 4 and Perpendicular Length 6m.Hemispherical Tank of a Diameter being filled with water issuing from a pipe of radius 6m, Open and Closed Solids, External and Internal Volumes.**

** 6.STATISTICS/ 7. PROBABILITY**

**Bar Charts and Pie Charts, Histogram, Pictogram, Mean Median, Mode, Range, Grouped Data, Cumulative Frequency, Mean Deviation, Standard Deviation and Probability, Addition and Multiplication Laws. Combined Probability, Experimental Probability. Theoretical Probability, Mutually Exclusive Events, Independent Events. Outcome Tables and Tree Diagrams.**

**Good luck.**

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Thanks a lot.may God bless all of you

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